best security framework
Many organizations view cybersecurity as a priority. Every day, the need for effective cybersecurity frameworks increases. Cybercriminals are constantly developing new techniques to execute attacks.
These frameworks have been developed to help organizations create robust cybersecurity programs. Businesses should be familiar with the best cybersecurity frameworks to enhance their security posture.
Cybersecurity frameworks are defined structures that contain processes, practices, and technologies that companies can use to protect their network and computer systems against security threats. For organizations to improve their security, they should be able to understand cybersecurity frameworks. These are the top cybersecurity frameworks:
1. ISO IEC 27001/ISO 2700212
The ISO 27001 cybersecurity framework is a collection of international standards that recommend how to manage information security management systems. ISO 27001 is a risk-based process that requires that businesses implement security measures to detect threats to their information systems.
ISO 27001 standards recommend a variety of controls to address identified threats. To ensure that it is protected against attacks, an organization must choose appropriate controls to mitigate security risks. ISO 27001 recommends 114 controls. These controls are divided into 14 categories: information security policies with two controls; information organization with seven controls detailing the responsibilities of various tasks; and human resource security category, which has six controls to enable employees to understand their responsibilities in maintaining information security.
The ISO 27002 framework, on the other hand, is an international standard that outlines the controls an organization should use to protect information systems’ security. ISO 27002 can be used in conjunction with ISO 27001 and many organizations use both to show their compliance with different regulations. The ISO 27002 standard recommends information security controls to enhance information security. These include access controls for different business requirements, managing user accessibility, asset inventory for managing IT assets, and access controls for managing user access.
2. NIST Cybersecurity Framework3
To respond to President Executive Order 13636, the NIST Cybersecurity Framework was created. This executive order was created to improve the security of the country’s critical infrastructure and protect them against external and internal attacks.
The framework is designed to protect critical infrastructures. However, private companies can use it to enhance their cyber defenses. NIST CSF identifies five functions that manage information security and data risks. These functions include identifying, protecting and detecting, responding, recovering, and responding.
Organizations can use the identify function to detect security risks to assets management, business environment, or IT governance. This is done through a comprehensive risk assessment and management process. The detect function establishes security controls to protect data and information systems. These security controls include access control, training, awareness, data security, and information protection procedures. They also maintain protective technologies. Detect offers guidelines to detect anomalies in security and monitoring systems. It also provides networks for uncovering security incidents. The response function provides recommendations on how to plan responses to security incidents, mitigation procedures, communication methods during a response, as well as activities for increasing security resilience. The recovery function offers guidelines for companies to follow to recover from an attack.
3. IASME Governance4
IASME governance is a set of cybersecurity standards that are designed to allow small and medium-sized businesses to have adequate information assurance. IASME governance defines the criteria by which a business can become certified to have implemented relevant cybersecurity measures.
This standard allows companies to show their willingness to protect personal and business data from existing or new customers. It is used to assess a company’s cybersecurity posture.
The IASME governance certification is very similar to ISO 27001 certification. Implementing and maintaining the standard is easier, cheaper, and requires less administrative overhead. Businesses operating in the UK can get cybersecurity insurance as part of their IASME standards certification.
4. SOC 25
SOC 2 was developed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. This framework is designed to allow organizations that store customer data in cloud services to ensure security.
This framework provides guidelines and requirements to SaaS companies for mitigating data breaches and strengthening their cybersecurity postures. The SOC 2 framework outlines the security requirements vendors and third parties must comply with. These requirements help them to conduct both internal and external threat analyses to identify cybersecurity threats.
SOC 2 has 61 compliance requirements. This makes it one of the most difficult frameworks to implement. These requirements include guidelines regarding the destruction of confidential information, security monitoring systems, security procedures, and responding to security incidents.
5. CIS v76
The Center for Information Security is responsible for maintaining and developing the CIS v7 framework. CIS v7 lists 20 cybersecurity requirements that can be used to improve security standards for all organizations.
Since the CIS has a solid reputation for creating baseline security programs, most companies view the security requirements as best practices.
The framework divides information security controls into three implementation categories. Businesses with limited cybersecurity resources and expertise are in implementation group 1. Implementation group 2 can be used by organizations that have limited technical knowledge and resources to implement the sub controls. While implementation group 3 is intended for companies with extensive cybersecurity expertise and resources.
CIS v7 is a standout among the rest because it allows organizations to develop budget-friendly cybersecurity programs. They can also prioritize their cybersecurity efforts.
6. NIST 800-53 Cybersecurity Framework7
NIST 800-53 was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist federal agencies in implementing effective cybersecurity practices.
This framework is focused on information security requirements that federal agencies can use to protect information and systems. NIST 800-53 also provides information security requirements for government organizations to meet FISMA (Federal Information Security Management Act). NIST 800-53 is unique because it includes more than 900 security requirements. This makes it one of the most difficult frameworks for organizations.
The framework recommends that you implement security assessment guidelines, security controls, and authorization policies. NIST 800-53 provides a framework that is useful for companies maintaining federal information systems, those who interact with federal information systems, and institutions seeking FISMA compliance.
COBIT (Control Objectives for IT and Related Technologies) is an integrated cybersecurity framework that integrates the best aspects of a business’s IT security, governance, and management. The framework was developed and maintained by ISACA (Information Systems Audit and Control Association).
Companies that want to improve production quality while adhering to better security practices will find the COBIT cybersecurity framework useful.
The framework was created because of the need to satisfy all cybersecurity expectations.
COSO (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations), is a framework that helps organizations identify and manage cybersecurity risk.
Monitoring, auditing, and reporting are the core elements of the framework’s creation. The framework also contains 17 requirements that can be categorized into five categories. These categories include control environment, control activities, and risk assessments.
The framework’s components work together to create sound processes for managing and identifying risks. The framework helps organizations identify and assess security risks at all levels. This improves their cybersecurity strategies.
The framework also recommends communication methods for communicating security goals and information risks within an organization. To facilitate prompt responses, the framework allows continuous monitoring of security events.
9. TC CYBER10
To improve telecommunication standards between countries within the European zone, the TC CYBER framework (Technical Committee on Cyber Security), was created.
The framework suggests a set of requirements to improve privacy awareness for individuals and organizations.
The framework aims to ensure that individuals and organizations can have high levels of privacy when using different telecommunication channels. The framework also recommends ways to improve communication security.
The framework is intended to address telecommunication privacy in European areas, but it can also be used by other countries around the world.
10. HITRUST CSF11
The HITRUST (Health Information Trust Alliance), cybersecurity framework addresses various security measures.
This framework was created to address the security concerns that organizations in the healthcare industry have when managing IT security. This framework provides institutions with flexible, efficient, and comprehensive approaches to managing risk and complying with various compliance regulations.
The framework includes a variety of compliance regulations to protect personal information. These include the Personal Data Protection Act in Singapore, which interprets the General Data Protection Regulation.
Regular revisions to the HITRUST cybersecurity framework are made to make sure it meets HIPPA regulations.
CISQ (Consortium for IT Software Quality), provides security standards that developers must follow when creating software applications.
Developers also use the CISQ standards for assessing the quality and size of a program. Software developers can use the CISQ standards to evaluate vulnerabilities and risks in a finished application or one that is under development. They can effectively address all threats and ensure that users have secure access to software applications.
The basis for the CISQ standards is developed and maintained are the vulnerabilities and exploits that the Open Web Application Security Project, SANS Institute, and CWE (Common Weaknesses Enumeration), have identified.
12. Ten steps to cybersecurity13
The UK’s Department for Business has launched the Ten Steps to Cybersecurity initiative. This framework provides a comprehensive overview of cybersecurity for business executives. This framework recognizes how important it is to provide executives with information about cybersecurity issues that can impact business growth or development, and the different ways they can mitigate them.
This allows them to make better decisions regarding organizational cybersecurity management. This framework provides a broad overview, but less technical details, to describe the cyber risks, defenses, and solutions. It allows businesses to use a company-wide approach to cybersecurity enhancement.
FedRAMP (Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program), is a framework for government agencies. This framework offers standardized guidelines to help federal agencies evaluate cyber risks and threats to different infrastructure platforms, cloud-based services, and software solutions.
The framework also allows for the reuse of security packages and assessments that are already in place across different government agencies.
This framework also relies on continuous monitoring of IT infrastructure and cloud products to support a real-time cybersecurity program. FedRAMP is also focused on moving from slow, insecure, and tethered IT to faster, more secure, mobile, and quicker IT. Federal agencies should have easy access to reliable and modern technologies, without compromising their security.
FedRAMP works with cybersecurity and cloud experts to ensure that other security frameworks are maintained to achieve the required security levels. These include NSA and DoD, NIST. GSA, OMB, NIST.
FedRAMP’s main objectives are to speed cloud migrations through reusing authorizations, assessments, increase confidence in cloud security and ensure federal agencies consistently follow recommended security practices.
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) provides guidelines that enable organizations to put in place sufficient controls to protect customer or employee health information.
HIPAA standards require that healthcare organizations comply since they store and collect health information about all patients. These standards have different security requirements, and organizations must demonstrate an understanding of how they are implemented and used.
These requirements also require employees to be trained on best practices for collecting, storing, and sharing health data. HIPAA also requires that companies create and maintain procedures to conduct risk assessments. Methods for managing identified risk should be included in the process.
The GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), is one of the most recent frameworks that have been enacted to protect personally identifiable information belonging to European citizens.
The regulation framework outlines a set of security requirements that all organizations must comply with. It is a global framework that protects all EU citizens’ data. Companies are required to adhere to the regulations to avoid huge penalties.
The GDPR requires that you implement appropriate controls to prevent unauthorized access to stored data. These include access control measures like multi-factor authentication schemes and role-based and least privilege access controls. Before using data for marketing purposes or advertising, websites or organizations must obtain the consent of the data owner. Non-compliance is defined as data breaches that occur because a company fails to implement security controls.
Federal Information Systems Management Act (FISMA) is a cybersecurity framework for federal agencies. This compliance standard describes a set of security requirements government agencies can use to improve their cybersecurity posture.
These security standards are intended to ensure that federal agencies take appropriate measures to safeguard critical information systems against different types of attacks. The framework also requires vendors and third parties that interact with government agencies to adhere to the security recommendations.
The main purpose of the security standard is to allow federal agencies to create and maintain highly effective cybersecurity programs. The standard includes a comprehensive cybersecurity framework that includes nine steps to secure government operations and IT assets. These steps are:
- Information can be categorized to improve security levels
- Minimum security controls to protect information
- Use risk assessments to refine controls
- Document the controls and create a security plan
- Implement the controls you need
- Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of controls that have been implemented
- Assess security risks for federal systems and data
- Authorize the use of secure information systems
- Monitoring continuous implementation of controls.
17. NY DFS18
NY DFS (New York Department of Financial Services), is a cybersecurity framework that covers all institutions that operate under DFS registrations or charters.
This framework includes several cybersecurity requirements that can improve financial institutions’ security and those of third parties with whom they do business.
NY DFS, among other things, requires companies to identify security threats that could affect their information systems or networks. Companies must also adopt adequate security infrastructure to protect all IT assets against identified risks. However, the NY DFS requires that organizations implement systems to detect cybersecurity events.
18. NERC CIP19
NERC CIP (North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection), is a cybersecurity framework that contains standards for protecting critical infrastructures.
The framework includes nine standards and 45 requirements. The sabotage reporting requirement, for example, requires that an electric company report unusual occurrences or security disturbances to the appropriate bodies.
An entity must document all critical cyber assets as per the critical cyber asset identification standard. The personnel and training standards require that employees have access to critical cyber assets to receive awareness and security training. The NERC CIP framework also includes standards for electronic security perimeter, incident response, and managing systems security.
SCAP (or Security Content Automation Protocol) is a regulation that contains security specifications to standardize the communication of security products.
This specification is intended to standardize security software program communication processes. SCAP is a standard specification that allows companies to measure, express, and organize security data using universal formats and criteria.
Security software can help businesses maintain their enterprise security through automated processes like installing and verifying security patches. Other tasks include testing and verifying security configurations and investigating instances that could compromise the system or network safety.
The ANSI framework (American National Standards Institute), contains information and technical reports that outline the procedures for implementing and maintaining Industrial Automation and Control Systems.
This framework applies to all IACS system administrators and implementors. The four categories that ANSI defines as the framework are:
This category includes foundational information such as security models, terminologies, and concepts. The second section addresses issues involved in maintaining and creating IACS cybersecurity programs. The third and fourth categories provide information about requirements for secure product integration and security requirements.
21. NIST SP 800-1222
This framework gives an overview of computer security and control within an organization.
NIST SP 800-12 also focuses on security measures that an organization can use to enhance cybersecurity defenses. While most of these security and control requirements were created for federal agencies and governmental agencies they can be used by private companies looking to improve their cybersecurity programs.
NIST SP 800-12 allows companies to create policies and programs that protect sensitive IT infrastructure and data.
22. NIST SP 800-1423
NIST SP 800-14, a unique publication, provides detailed descriptions and explanations of common security principles. This publication allows organizations to fully understand the requirements for cybersecurity policies.
Businesses are now required to create comprehensive cybersecurity policies and programs that cover all critical data and systems. The publications also outline specific steps companies can take to improve security policies already in place. The NIST SP 800-14 framework outlines eight security principles and 14 cybersecurity practices.
23. NIST SP 800-2624
NIST SP 80026 is a guideline for managing IT security.
A company cannot achieve optimal cybersecurity by simply implementing security policies. They require regular assessments and evaluations. The publication includes descriptions of how to conduct risk assessments and management practices to manage identified risks.