10 Common Encryption Methods in 2022
In 2022, it will be critical to grasp the many types of encryption methods. Today, the Internet serves as a vital means of communication and data sharing between billions of individuals throughout the world. People utilise it for a variety of purposes, including commerce, financial services, social connection, and the interchange of massive volumes of personal and commercial information. Because of the expanding popularity and greater use of the internet, security has become an extremely important concern for every individual and organisation, regardless of size.
When delivering sensitive material via a public network, the Internet’s openness and broad access principles are no longer required, as they formerly were. Unquestionably, you want to protect sensitive information from unwanted disclosure. Most critically, you must protect such information from being compromised by cyber thieves with malevolent intent. There are numerous dimensions to security, as well as numerous applications, ranging from secure card transactions to private data exchange and the safeguarding of healthcare information.
The most acceptable solution to this security concern is to modify the information such that it can only be viewed by those who are authorised to do so. We’re talking about encryption algorithms and procedures, which we’ll go over in more detail in this article.
Nonetheless, it is critical to recognise that, while information encryption is required for today’s secure communications, it is not sufficient in and of itself. In practise, it is better to think of the encryption methods and algorithms presented here as the first of a series of actions to improve the security posture of an organization’s information technology infrastructure and systems.
What is Encryption and how does it work?
Computer encryption is based on the science of cryptography, which has been in use for as long as people have desired to keep their communications private and confidential. Modern cryptography is primarily computer-based, because the classic human-based encryption technique is just too easy for current computers to crack.
According to the Computer Security Resource Center (CSRC), encryption is defined as the “cryptographic transformation of data (plaintext) into a form (ciphertext) that conceals the data’s original meaning in order to prevent the data from being discovered or utilised.”
The concept of the CSRC then moves on to define the reversal procedure. The decryption process, which is a transformation that returns encrypted data to its original state, is called the analogous reversing process, if the transformation is reversible.
Algorithms for Encryption
It is necessary to apply algorithms throughout the encryption procedure. It’s possible you remember this from your algebra class. In mathematics, an algorithm is a technique, which is a description of a collection of steps that is used to assist in the solution of a mathematical computation. Algorithms, as opposed to traditional mathematical techniques, are far more prevalent and relevant in a variety of fields today. They have applications in a wide range of scientific fields, including computer science and cybersecurity, among others.
An encryption algorithm is a mathematical method that scrambles and obscures a communication using meaningless ciphertext, which is discussed in detail in the content of cybersecurity. An encryption algorithm, according to Cloudflare, is “the method utilised to transform data into ciphertext.” The definition goes on to say that an algorithm is a method of altering data in a predictable manner through the use of an encryption key. Users who have the correct decryption key will be able to convert the ciphertext back to plaintext in this manner.
Cryptography vs. Encryption: What’s the difference?
Cryptography and encryption are frequently used interchangeably. Cryptography, on the other hand, is an umbrella term, with encryption being only one of the components. Cryptography is the study of techniques such as encryption and decryption, and it is a broad field of study.
Cryptography, according to its definition, is the study of ideas such as encryption and decryption that are used to ensure the security of communications. Encryption, on the other hand, is more of a mathematical activity or algorithm that is used to encode a message. As a result, because cryptography is a subject of study, it encompasses a greater variety of categories and ranges, whereas encryption is merely a technique that is one component of cryptography.
The following are the five primary functions of cryptography, according to Gary C. Kessler, Professor of Cybersecurity and Chair of the Department of Security Studies and International Affairs at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University:
- Privacy and secrecy are important in guaranteeing that no one other than the intended recipient can view the message.
- Authentication is defined as the process of establishing one’s identification.
- Integrity is the assurance given to the recipient that the received message has not been altered in any manner from the original message.
- Non-repudiation is a mechanism for demonstrating that a specific communication was sent by the intended recipient.
- The mechanism by which cryptographic keys are shared between sender and receiver is referred to as key exchange.
- Cryptography is a procedure that begins with data that has not been encrypted, often known as plaintext. You apply encryption techniques to encrypt the data into ciphertext, which will then be decrypted back into plaintext that can be read and used by the intended recipient.
Methods of Encryption That Are Frequently Used
Strictly speaking, there are two types of commonly used encryption methods: symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption.
1. Symmetric Encryption (also known as symmetric encryption)
Symmetric encryption is also referred to as private key encryption in some circles. Secret Key Cryptography is the term used by Kessler and other researchers to describe this procedure. This encryption method, as the name implies, requires only one key to be used by both the transmitter and the recipient. When it comes to speed, symmetric cryptography outperforms the asymmetric algorithm by a significant margin. Because it only requires a single key, which is significantly shorter than the keys used in asymmetric encryption techniques, this method is significantly faster to run in terms of encryption and decryption procedures.
Despite the fact that symmetric encryption is faster, the method is associated with a significant level of danger when it comes to key transmission. Particularly noteworthy is that symmetric cryptography employs the same key to encrypt and decrypt communications, and the sender must share this secret with the receivers in order for the decryption process to take place. The chance of being intercepted by hackers increases with each time a user shares the key with another user.
What are some of the most prominent applications for symmetric encryption? Because of its speed, this encryption technology is ideal for large-scale data transfers within organisations. In addition, this encryption approach is excellent for encrypting data saved on a device when there is no intention of transferring it to a different location. Symmetric encryption is used in the banking industry for payment applications, notably card transactions, where personally identifiable information (PII) must be protected in order to prevent identity theft from taking place.
2nd Asymmetric Encryption Technique
Asymmetric encryption, often known as public-key encryption, differs from symmetric encryption in that it employs two keys: one public key (which anybody can access) to encrypt information and a private key (which only you can access) to decrypt information. In most cases, it is straightforward to compute the public key from the private key, but it is extremely difficult to produce a private key from the publicly available public key. Because asymmetric encryption operates at sluggish speeds, it is inefficient when used in large quantities.
Because it makes use of two separate keys, asymmetric encryption provides increased security. As stated in a blog post on Venafi, “public-key cryptography is used to ensure the confidentiality, authenticity, and non-repudiation of electronic communications and data storage.” It is also used to protect financial information.
Therefore, the approach is most commonly employed in assignments where security takes precedence above speed.. Typical applications of asymmetric encryption include digital signatures, which are used to verify the identities of users. When accessing a website hosted on the public cloud, the process becomes more complicated, and symmetric encryption is no longer effective because you do not have control over the other end of the link. You must exchange a secret code with other entities in order to complete this action without the risk of intruders on the Internet intercepting it in the middle of the process.
Let us now focus our attention to the encryption techniques that are frequently utilised nowadays.
Algorithms for Commonly Used Encryption
There are various popular encryption methods in use today that are worth mentioning. In this essay, we’ll go over ten of the most popular algorithms.
1. Triple-DES is an acronym that stands for “triple-destructive encryption” (3DES)
DES Encyrption on three levels
A block of text is encrypted three times using the older Data Encryption System (DES) algorithm, which is called Triple DES. 3DES is classified as a symmetric encryption method that makes use of the block cypher method.
As the name implies, it is a type of encryption technique in which each block of data is encrypted in its own fixed-size block at a time. If you use the same key to encrypt a particular plaintext block, the ciphertext will always be the same, as defined by Kessler. This is known as deterministic ciphertext encryption. In contrast, in a stream cypher, the same plaintext will encrypt to a variety of different ciphertexts.
Because it is too short, the 56-bit DES method, which is one of the most well-known and well-studied secret-key cryptography algorithms, was inherently insufficient from the start. Consequently, as processing power increased, it became increasingly vulnerable to brute force attacks on the network. 3DES is programmed to apply the DES algorithm three times to each data block, as is intended. Overall, the improved method has a length of up to 168 bits in its total length. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, according to Kessler, 3DES was used as a temporary alternative for DES in a number of applications.
The changes make it more efficient for a variety of applications, including protecting credit card transactions in the electronic payment industry and other financial services businesses. User material and system information are likewise protected with Triple DES in Microsoft’s Outlook, OneNote, and System Center Configuration Manager 2012, among others.
2. Common Encryption Methods (RSA) are described in detail in Section 2 of this document.
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA in full) is an asymmetric encryption technique that is frequently used in conjunction with the Diffie-Hellman key exchange method, which will be detailed in the following section. This encryption algorithm generates the modulus by combining two prime numbers, which are then used to construct the public and private keys for the encryption technique.
Increases in key size, which is commonly 1024 or 2048 bits in length, have an exponential effect on the strength of the RSA encryption algorithm. RSA implementations are typically used in conjunction with some form of padding strategy to prevent messages from producing insecure ciphertexts during transmission.
Because there is no current patent protecting RSA, anyone can make use of it. The algorithm is primarily responsible for encryption, decryption, and signature verification, all of which are accomplished using the same two functions. The RSA asymmetric approach is the industry standard for encrypting data transferred over the Internet due to its high level of security features.
However, there are certain drawbacks to utilising RSA for encryption. For example, the technique is slow due to the fact that it makes use of public-key cryptography.
3. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol
In 2022, there will be ten commonly used encryption methods.
the encryption algorithm developed by Whitfield Diffie (co-inventor), often known as the Diffie-Hellman encryption algorithm or the Exponential Key Exchange algorithm, is a public key exchange mechanism that is used to share private keys across public networks. In addition to being one of the most commonly used encryption algorithms, the algorithm may also serve as a key agreement protocol, determining the private key that will be used by both parties in data exchanges.
For decades, Diffie-Hellman has been used to share private keys in symmetric encryption applications. It enables two entities with no prior knowledge of one another to construct a shared secret key through an unsecure channel such as the Internet.
The Diffie-Hellman algorithm, on the other hand, lacks authentication. Man-in-the-middle attacks can compromise data encrypted with this method. Diffie-Hellman is highly suited for data communication, but it is less commonly employed for data that is stored or archived for an extended period of time.
The Diffie-Hellman public domain algorithm allows you to protect a wide range of internet services due to its nature. In addition, the method serves as the foundation for a number of authenticated protocols. Diffie-application Hellman’s in forward secrecy in Transport Layer Security (TLS) ephemeral modes is a good example.
4 Encryption with ElGamal
Another asymmetric key cryptography based on the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange is ElGamal encryption. The difficulty of computing discrete logs in a big prime modulus determines the algorithm’s security. The identical plaintext yields a distinct ciphertext each time it is encrypted using the ElGamal technique. The technique generates ciphertext twice the length of the plaintext.
Any cyclic group can be used to define ElGamal encryption. Its security is determined by the underlying group’s attributes as well as the plaintext padding strategy.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and GNU Privacy Guard both use this encryption technology in current versions. ElGamal encryption is also employed in a hybrid cryptosystem, in which a symmetric cryptosystem encrypts the plaintext before ElGamal is used to encrypt the key.
Blowfish, like Triple DES, is a symmetric key technique intended to replace DES. This popular encryption technology is known for its efficiency and quickness. Anyone can use the Blowfish algorithm for free because it is in the public domain.
Blowfish uses a block length of 64 bits. It also has a key size that can range from 32 to 448 bits. The Blowfish algorithm uses a 16-round Feistel cypher with massive key-dependent S-boxes for encryption.
The Blowfish algorithm has the issue of being subject to birthday assaults, especially in HTTPS situations. Apart from that, because to its short 64-bit block size, Blowfish is clearly ineffective in encrypting files larger than 4 GB.
What are some of the most common Blowfish applications? Database security, eCommerce platforms, file and disc encryption, and archiving tools are just a few of the software areas that use the encryption method. Password management, file transfer, secure shell, steganography, and email encryption are all possible using Blowfish.
6 six. twofish
The Twofish symmetric cypher algorithm was devised by Bruce Schneier to replace the less secure Blowfish technique. The Situation Box (S-box) was employed by Twofish as part of their encryption approach. Twofish protects against brute force attacks by using a 128-bit block size and a key size of up to 256 bits. The encryption key is represented by half of the n-bit key, while the second half modifies the encryption algorithm.
Twofish is marginally slower than AES, but with 256-bit keys it is significantly faster. Furthermore, the algorithm is adaptable, making it appropriate for usage in network programmes with often changing keys. Furthermore, Twofish is effective when only a limited quantity of RAM and ROM is available. The algorithm is widely included in encryption software such as TrueCrypt, GPG, and PhotoEncrypt.
7 In 2022, there will be seven AES ten Common Encryption Methods.
The term AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard, and it is a technology concept.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the successor of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) began a public four-and-a-half-year effort to build a new safe cryptosystem for US government applications. This evolution contrasted with the highly restricted process that led to the introduction of DES over two decades ago. The process resulted in AES, which took over as the official DES successor in December 2001.
The AES algorithm is a three-size block cypher: AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256. Before conducting a sequence of modifications known as rounds, the AES encryption algorithm places data into an array. In essence, AES in 128-bit form is extremely efficient. For added protection, it can use 192-bit and 256-bit keys. For 128-bit keys, it runs ten rounds and for 192-bit keys, it runs twelve cycles. There are 14 rounds in the 235-bit key. The programme also employs Rijndael cryptography, a block cypher created by Belgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen.
The AES algorithm is strong enough to secure government secrets and sensitive corporate data by design. It is naturally secure, and no actual attacks against the algorithm have been uncovered by security specialists. As a result, the encryption technique has become a widely accepted standard among the US government and other institutions.
Because of its minimal RAM requirements and rapid speed, AES is the recommended technique for encrypting top-secret data. The technique also works well on a wide range of hardware, from 8-bit smart cards to high-performance processors. AES is also used in a variety of transmission methods and protocols, including Wi-Fi network security (WPA2), voice over IP (VoIP), and signalling data.
IDEA NO. 8
A 128-bit key is used in the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA). IDEA is similar to AES in that it uses a rounding mechanism. Users have implemented the block cypher for the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) email privacy technology, which sends data in 64-bit blocks.
The 64-bit block is divided into four 16-bit pieces by IDEA. The sub-blocks are then converted one by one in each round. To scramble data, IDEA uses substitution and transposition.
9 RC6 is the ninth character of the alphabet.
The RC6 technique is also a symmetric-key block cypher. RC6, on the other hand, offers a little twist in that it uses variable-length blocks. Furthermore, the number of rounds that the data travels through throughout modifications is varied.
RC6 can handle 128-bit blocks and keys with sizes ranging from 0 to 2040 bits.
RC6 is unquestionably superior to the earlier RC4 and RC5 algorithms. Furthermore, RC6 is parameterized, which means it adds an extra layer of complexity to encryption.
10 Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a type of encryption that uses elliptic
ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) is an asymmetric encryption method based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves. Rather than using the traditional way of creating keys as the product of big prime numbers, this widespread encryption method uses the elliptic curve equation property to generate keys.
The size of the elliptic curve defines the problem’s complexity level. With a 164-bit key, it may reach a degree of security that other systems, such as RSA, require a 1024-bit key to attain.
Key agreements, pseudo-random generators, and digital signatures are all examples of ECC. ECC is being developed as a successor to the popular RSA technique by researchers. The National Security Agency (NSA) has shown strong support for the method, stating that it plans to use Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman for key exchange and the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature algorithm for digital signatures.
The importance of encrypting data to keep it concealed and inaccessible to unauthorised users cannot be overstated. Encryption helps secure private information and sensitive data in today’s world of frequent and sophisticated assaults. Aside from cyberattacks, machine compute power is always expanding, necessitating new approaches by security specialists to keep intruders at bay.
The security of communications between client apps and servers is improved by a variety of encryption techniques and algorithms. Encryption algorithms are mathematical methods that convert plaintext to ciphertext, which is unreadable. In other words, if you employ the right technique to encrypt data, even if an intruder gets their hands on it, they won’t be able to read it.
We’ve established that some encryption algorithms are more trustworthy and robust than others. In certain circumstances, new algorithms evolve in response to requests to replace older, less effective algorithms. 3DES and AES, for example, improved on the flaws of DES. Older algorithms became obsolete as a result, while newer, more robust versions were developed. This article discusses trustworthy encryption techniques that protect information from cyberattacks. Without appropriate encryption systems and algorithms, the Internet and its uses would be impossible.